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It is known that there are serious problems in relating C-14 dates in ancient Israel to the established ceramic, epigraphic, and historical chronologies (Levy, T. Even if there were no issues with C-14 dating, the samples coming from charcoal in a burn layer may be from burned wooden beams cut from trees that were harvested over 100 years prior to their destruction.
Quality wood in ancient Israel was rare and expensive, usually imported from the forests of Lebanon, and thus often reused again and again until it was rotten, broken, or destroyed.
Some organic materials do give radiocarbon ages in excess of 50,000 "radiocarbon years." However, it is important to distinguish between "radiocarbon years" and calendar years.
These two measures of time will only be the same if all of the assumptions which go into the conventional radiocarbon dating technique are valid.
With perfect C-14 dating, this would still result in a date 100 years before the destruction occurred.
Grain samples should be much more reliable in terms of their harvest date, but as one can see from the Jericho samples, the ranges given are not nearly specific enough to settle a debate between a destruction layer dated to either 1550 BC or 1400 BC.
Overall, the C-14 dates from the destruction of the Bronze Age city of Jericho range from as high as 1883 BC to as low as 1262 BC—a range of over 600 years. “Introduction: Radiocarbon dating and the Iron Age of the Southern Levant: Problems and potentials for the Oxford conference,” in The Bible and Radiocarbon Dating: Archaeology, Text and Science. and Bronk Ramsey, C., “C14 Dates and the Iron Age chronology of Israel: a response,” Radiocarbon, 50(2), 2008: 159-180).
The field of radiocarbon dating has become a technical one far removed from the naive simplicity which characterized its initial introduction by Libby in the late 1940's.
Carbon-14 dating began to play a role in the debate about the date during the 1990s, after excavation reports from the Kenyon expedition had finally been published.
When the Bronze Age city of Jericho was destroyed by a fire, the burned grain and wood was carbonized, preserving some of it in the destruction layer (Kenyon, Kathleen. This destruction layer, and various bits of charred grain and wood was excavated by archaeologists and sent to laboratories to establish a C-14 date. A New Look at the Archaeological Evidence,” BAR 16:2 (1990): 44-58, 53).
Since limestone contains very little, if any, radiocarbon, clam shells will contain less radiocarbon than would have been the case if they had gotten their carbon atoms from the air.
This gives the clam shell an artificially old radiocarbon age.
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Radiocarbon is not used to date the age of rocks or to determine the age of the earth.